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A summary of Beaufort scale, Fujita (F) and Enhanced Fujita (EF) tornado scales.

Beaufort F EF Wind speed Description Wave height Sea conditions Land conditions
# kn km/h mph m/s m ft
0 0 0 0 0-0.2 Calm 0 0 Flat. Calm. Smoke rises vertically.
1 1-3 1-6 1-3 0.3-1.5 Light air 0.1 0.33 Ripples without crests. Wind motion visible in smoke.
2 4-6 7-11 4-7 1.6-3.3 Light breeze 0.2 0.66 Small wavelets. Crests of glassy appearance, not breaking Wind felt on exposed skin. Leaves rustle.
3 7-10 12-19 8-12 3.4-5.4 Gentle breeze 0.6 2 Large wavelets. Crests begin to break; scattered whitecaps Leaves and smaller twigs in constant motion.
4 11-15 20-29 13-18 5.5-7.9 Moderate breeze 1 3.3 Small waves. Dust and loose paper raised. Small branches begin to move.
5 16-21 30-39 19-24 8.0-10.7 Fresh breeze 2 6.6 Moderate (1.2 m) longer waves. Some foam and spray. Smaller trees sway.
6 22-27 40-50 25-31 10.8-13.8 Strong breeze 3 9.9 Large waves with foam crests and some spray. Large branches in motion. Whistling heard in overhead wires. Umbrella use becomes difficult.
7 28-33 51-62 32-38 13.9-17.1 Near Gale/Moderate gale 4 13.1 Sea heaps up and foam begins to streak. Whole trees in motion. Effort needed to walk against the wind.
8 34-40 63-75 39-46 17.2-20.7 Fresh Gale 5.5 18 Moderately high waves with breaking crests forming spindrift. Streaks of foam. Twigs broken from trees. Cars veer on road.
Beaufort F EF Wind speed Description Wave height Sea conditions Land conditions
# kn km/h mph m/s m ft
F0 64-116 40-72 18-32 Gale tornado Light damage. Some damage to chimneys; branches broken off trees; shallow-rooted trees pushed over; sign boards damaged.
9 (F0) 41-47 76-87 47-54 20.8-24.4 Strong Gale 7 23 High waves (6-7 m) with dense foam. Wave crests start to roll over. Considerable spray. Light structure damage.
10 (F0) 48-55 88-102 55-63 24.5-28.4 Whole Gale/Storm 9 29.5 Very high waves. The sea surface is white and there is considerable tumbling. Visibility is reduced. Trees uprooted. Considerable structural damage.
11 (F0) 56-63 103-119 64-73 28.5-32.6 Violent storm 11.5 37.7 Exceptionally high waves. Widespread structural damage.
(F0) EF0 105-137 65-85 29-38

Light damage.

Peels surface off some roofs; some damage to gutters or siding; branches broken off trees; shallow-rooted trees pushed over.

Confirmed tornadoes with no reported damage (i.e. those that remain in open fields) are always rated EF0.

F1 (EF0) 117-180 73-112 33-50 Moderate tornado Moderate damage. The lower limit is the beginning of hurricane wind speed; peels surface off roofs; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned; moving autos pushed off the roads; attached garages may be destroyed.
Beaufort F EF Wind speed Description Wave height Sea conditions Land conditions
# kn km/h mph m/s m ft
12 (F1) (EF0) 64-80 120 74-95 32.7-40.8 Hurricane 14+ 46+ Huge waves. Air filled with foam and spray. Sea completely white with driving spray. Visibility greatly reduced. Considerable and widespread damage to structures.
(F1) EF1 138-177 86-110 38-49

Moderate damage.

Roofs severely stripped; mobile homes overturned or badly damaged; loss of exterior doors; windows and other glass broken.

(F1) EF2 179-217 111-135 50-60

Considerable damage.

Roofs torn off well-constructed houses; foundations of frame homes shifted; mobile homes completely destroyed; large trees snapped or uprooted; light-object missiles generated; cars lifted off ground.

F2 (EF2) 182-253 113-157 51-70 Significant tornado Considerable damage. Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile homes demolished; boxcars overturned; large trees snapped or uprooted; light-object missiles generated.
(F2) EF3 219-266 136-165 61-74

Severe damage.

Entire stories of well-constructed houses destroyed; severe damage to large buildings such as shopping malls; trains overturned; trees debarked; heavy cars lifted off the ground and thrown; structures with weak foundations blown away some distance.

F3 (EF3) 254-332 158-206 71-92 Severe tornado Severe damage. Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees in forest uprooted; heavy cars lifted off the ground and thrown.
Beaufort F EF Wind speed Description Wave height Sea conditions Land conditions
# kn km/h mph m/s m ft
(F3) EF4 267-322 166-200 74-89

Devastating damage.

Well-constructed houses and whole frame houses completely leveled; cars thrown and small missiles generated.

(F3) EF5 322-up 200-and up 89-up

Incredible damage.

Strong frame houses leveled off foundations and swept away; automobile-sized missiles fly through the air in excess of 100 m (109 yd); high-rise buildings have significant structural deformation; incredible phenomena will occur.

So far only one EF5 tornado has been recorded since the Enhanced Fujita Scale was introduced on February 1, 2007. See Greensburg, Kansas tornado

F4 (EF5) 333-418 207-260 93-116 Devastating tornado Devastating damage. Well-constructed houses leveled; structures with weak foundations blown away some distance; cars thrown and large missiles generated.
F5 (EF5) 420-512 261-318 117-142 Incredible tornado Incredible damage. Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distances to disintegrate; automobile sized missiles fly through the air in excess of 100 m (109 yd); trees debarked; steel reinforced concrete structures badly damaged; incredible phenomena will occur.
F6 513-610 319-379 143-169 Inconceivable tornado ...

 

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